Currently over 40% of all species living on the Earth are on the verge of extinction. These changes can be considered as disastrous, reminds the International Day for Biodiversity, which is marker on 22 May every year. The theme of this year is “Mainstreaming Biodiversity; Sustaining People and their Livelihoods”.
This theme in Armenia is urgent as well: examples can be brought in all factors, which promote biodiversity loss: 1. Loss and fragmentation of natural habitat. In the middle of the 1990’s Armenia recorded one extinct species, Dahl’s Jird, which inhabited in our area. As a result of the area ploughing and extinction of calligonum, a plant this species fed with, Dahl’s Jird also got extinct, as it turned out for the whole world.
2. Competition among invasive species: Intensive fish breeding in artificial ponds led to their penetration of these fish species into the natural water basins, particularly Lake Sevan and force out endemic fish species, for example Sevan Trout.
3. Environmental pollution: This factor particularly works in mining areas, where whole ecosystems are destroyed. For example, the development of Teghout mine resulted in the elimination of around 20 endemic species and red-listed plant and animal species inhabiting in Teghout forest.
4. Global climate warming: Armenia exceeds average international indicators with its climate change indicators. If measures are not taken, the vulnerability of mountain ecosystems, characteristic to Armenia, especially in terms of climate, will lead to the loss of species biodiversity.
5. Desertification: Over 40% of the territory in Armenia is exposed to desertification process and tendencies of its growth persevere, which means that individual species will become more vulnerable with the increase in degraded areas. If “unreasonable exploitation of natural resources”, elimination of forests, violation of water balance are added to this factor, a new red book will be drawn up for the species having appeared on the verge of extinction.
Reminder: in 2010 works on the new Red Book of Armenia were accomplished, which includes 452 plant species instead of 367 species red-listed in the Red Book of Armenia in 1989, 153 animal species instead of 99 species red-listed in the Red Book of Armenia in 1989, to be added 40 species of fungi and 155 species of invertebrates.
00:19 May 23, 2016